(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "On twenty new birds from Bogota"

\jP Biodiversity 
fe^HeriUge 

http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/ 



Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 

London :Academic Press, [etc.],1 833-1 965. 
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/44963 



1 856: http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/4621 4 

Page(s): Text, Text, Text, Text, Text, Text, Text, Text, Text, Text, Text, Text, Text, Page 25, 

Page 26, Page 27, Page 28, Page 29, Page 30, Page 31 , Page 32 



Contributed by: Natural History Museum Library, London 
Sponsored by: Natural History Museum Library, London 



Generated 1 1 September 201 1 11 :03 AM 
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/pdf3/007905800046214 



This page intentionally left blank. 




h 



i> 




THIS BOOK IIAY NOT BE PHOTOCOPIED 



r^ rt 



^ • V-* 1. 



Qm 







\* 





3^ 




PT "^^''jlf, km 



M & ii.iiQiuiar^ 



JyI/.RGARO 




I ■ 



; ^ 



RUNNESCENS 



irfii 



^L 



JBh 



. . m ^ ... m m 



■S&i 






»- "^ ■ 



j^^g^M 



>i- 



■V' 



t 



\ 



%: 



t_ 





<l 



"^^^ 



F'H- -^1 







rr^ 



V 



r^ 



EU 



i^r 



xoc 



Z 



J - r 



ee 





■k 





^ 



ilv 





4 









k 







^ 



I 



L 



TT 



_ji. - 



-♦ ^■a 



roc. 2" S.Aves, CXI 





J.Y/oli^.litk, 



M & ¥-Haiinart,lnip. 



CQN'OPOPHAGA CJJCULLATA , Sa'c:^^^ 



J&. 



' '•■ £i 



' •- 



25 



February 26, 1856. 

Dr. Gray, F.R.S., in the Chair 
The following papers were read : 

1. On some additional Species of Birds received in 

collections from bogota. 
By Philip Lutley Sclater, M.A., F.Z.S. 

(Aves, PL CXVI— CXIX.) 

MM. Verreaux of Paris, knowing the interest I take in New 
Grenadian ornithology, have most kindly transmitted to me some 
specimens of birds from a collection lately received from Bogota, 
which did not appear to them to be included in my list, published in 
in this Society's ^ Proceedings' for last year. I have also myself 
noticed a few others, which I«had not previously remarked in collec- 
tions from that locality. From these sources I am enabled to lay 
before the Society a list of twenty-two species, which, added to those 
given in my former catalogue, raise the total number of birds now 
ascertained as belonging to this peculiar fauna to 457. 

1 . Nyctale harrisi, Cassin, Pr. Ac. Sc. Phil. (1849) iv. p. 157, 
et Journ. Ac. Sc. Phil. N. S. ii. p. 53, pi. 5. Ciccaba guella, Bp. 
Consp. p. 44. Gisella harrisi^ Bp. Compt. Rend. 1855, Oct. 22nd. 
^ Nyctalitinus albipunctatus, Kaup,' Gray, Cat. of Gen. of B., App. 
p. 135. 

Dr. Hartlaub writes me word that the Bremen Museum has a 
Bogota specimen of this pecuUar Owl, and the example in the Norwich 
Museum named by Dr. Kaup Nyctalitinus albipunctatus was received, 
I believe, from the same locality. 

2. Synallaxis elegans, sp. nov. 

jS. pallide murino-brunnea, infra medialiter albescentior^ ventre medio 

Candida^ crisso et tateribus dorso concoloribus : pileo toto, nisi 

fronte^ alis extus et cauda rufis : loris albescentibus. 

Long, tota 6*4, alse 2*2, caudse 3*7. 

This iSyw<«Ztoi5 is verylike a commonBrazilian species, fi».r«y?cfl^27/a, 

Vieill., which it resembles in having the head, wings and tail bright 

rufous. But in the present bird the rufous colour does not extend 

over the front, which is brown like the back, there are no yellowish 

supercilia, or at least the very faintest traces of them, and the under 

plumage is not cinereous, but brown like the upper, only paler, and 

medially passing into white, which colour is quite pure in the middle 

of the belly. The tail is longer, and the webs of the rectrices are 

not so broad as in the Brazihan bird. 

This species, like other true Synallaxes^ has only eight large 

rectrices and an outer pair abnormally small. Other birds, often 

placed in this genus, have twelve, which is the number given by 




Vieillot in his generic characters, but I consider this erroneous, and 
believe the former number to be the normal one. 

The present bird seems not uncommon m Bogota collections, but 
has probably been liitherto confounded with its several allied species. 

3. Synallaxis mcesta, sp. nov, 

S, olivascenti'brnnnea, suhtus paulo dilutior : alls inttis nigris, extus 
castanets : cauda rufa : lorls et gutture albidiorihus : tectricibics 
subalaribus pallide fulvis ; rostro valido, nigro ; mandibula in- 
fer lore basi albescente : pedibus pallidis. 

Long, tota 5*2, alae 2'5, caudse 2'5. 

The single specimen which I possess of this bird was received from 
MM. Verreaux. It is of a nearly uniform olive-brown, rather hghter 
below, particularly on the throat and sides of the head. The chestnut 
margin of the quills grows narrower towards their apices, leaving the 
dusky black apparent, but at their bases extends through both webs 
and shows itself underneath. The tail is pure rufous and very 
short, but I am not quite certain that it is of its normal length in my 
specimen, there being indications of a state of moult. The bill is 
rather stronger and more conical than in most species of the genus. 

Out of the six Sy nail axes described by M. de Lafresnaye (Rev. 
Zool. 1843, p. 290) as from this country, I have as yet only met 
with three, namely, S» gularisy cinnamomeus and imirnfus^ which I 
have been able to identify with certainty. I have, however, speci- 
mens of a Bogota bird of this genus which I think may possibly 
be his S. fidiginosus, and there are examples of the same species in 
the British Museum. If I am correct in my conjectm-es, I may 
remark, that the description he gives of this bird is hardly sufficiently 
accurate, and I can only refer my specimens doubtfully to his species 
vdth the following characters : 

4. Synallaxis fuliginosa, Lafr. R. Z. 1843, p. 290 ? 



S, supra rufescenti'brunnea, alls extns paulo clarioribus^ cauda adhuc 
clariore, pure brumiescenti-rufa, scapis plumarum nigris : rectri- 
cibus decern, angustissimis et tenuissimis : loris et superciliis in- 
disiincte albldis: infra obscure clnerea, mento snmmo et ventre 
albescentioribus : rostro nigro: basi mandibulcd inferioris albicante ; 
pedibus validissimis dare brunneis. 
Long, tota 6*5, alae 2*3. caudse 3*75. 

The tail of this bird is of a clearer and more reddish-brown than 
the back, with the shafts of the feathers black. The outer pair of 
rectrices are abnormally small, measuring only one inch in length, 
the next pair about double that length. The webs of all are ex- 
ceedingly narrow, in particular the outer ones, and grow finer towards 
the extremities. 

This form of Synallaxis shows evident rapprochement towards 
SylviortJiorhynchus, 

5. Anabates ruficaudatus, Lafr. et d'Orb. Syn. Av. in Mag. 
deZool. 1838, p. 15. 

I possess a Bogota skin, received from MM. Verreaux, w 




27 



M. de Lafresnaye lias kindly identified for me as being of this 

species. 

The apical portion of the outer primaries in this bird is black, 
which colour gradually diminishes in extent in the succeeding feathers, 
and is reduced to a minimum in the secondaries, where it only forms 
a blotch at the ends. The first quill is nearly wholly black, and in 
those next succeeding the same colour advances far up the stems, being 
broadly margined outwardly with chestnut, and inwardly with paler 
cinnamomeous. 

6. Anabates erythropterus, sp. nov.? 

A, supra pallide hrunnescenti-cinereus ; alisextuset cauda tota rufis, 
remigum exteriorum parte apicali nigra : loris oculoriinl ambitu 
et gula cum tectricibus subalarihus cinnamomeis : corpore cetera 
subtus pallide cinnamomescenti'albidOf lateribus olivaceo tinctis : 
rostro albidoy culmine nigrescenti-plumbeo : pedibus pallidis. 
Long, tota 6*2, alee 3* 6, caudse 3*1. 

The only Anabates I know of likely to resemble the present species 
is A. guianensis (PI. EnL 686, fig. 2). I have never seen that bird, 
but if it has been correctly described, there is no doubt that this 
species is distinct. 

7. Xenops rtjtilans, Temm. PL Col. 72, fig. 2. 

A Bogota skin received from MM. Verreaux seems referable to 
this bird, though there is rather more black m the tail than in my 
Brazilian specimens. 

8. Margarornis brunnescens, sp. nov. (Plate CXVI.) 

M, umbrino-brunnea, capitis dorsique superi pennis obsolete et an- 
gustissime nigra margi7iulatis : infra pallide achracescenti-albo 
guttulata, his guttuUs nigra cinctis et deinde umbrino-brunneo 
terminatis: loris et gutture medio ochracescentibus, nigrescente 
paululum variegatis : rostro superiare nigra, inferiore flavida, 
pedibus dare brunneis. 
Long, tota 5*5, alse 2*5, caudae 2*5. 

MM. Verreaux have transmitted me a single specimen of this bird, 
which forms a second species of the genus Margarornis, instituted 
by Reichenbach for the Anabates squamiger, Lafr. & d'Orb. M. 
de Lafresnaye has also coined the name Anabasitta for the same 
form, but I believe the first-mentioned term has a shght priority. 
The type of the genus is very common in collections from Bogota. 
The present bird may be distinguished from it at once by the want 
of the bright chestnut colouring on the back and tail. In form, 
however, there is not much difference. In M. brunnescens the beak 
is rather longer, and the first two prmiaries proportionately rather 
shorter. The elongation of the naked stems of the rectrices is carried 
to a greater extent in the present species than in the other. There 
are twelve tail-feathers, and they all terminate in a similar hair-Uke 
point. The plumage of the two species below shows much similarity, 
but in the *' brunnescens'' the tear-like spots are yellowish. 



28 

I may remark that Reichenbach has kept the Bogota and Bolivian 
Margarornithes apart, but M. de Lafresnaye, who knows both species, 
considers them identicah It is with Bogota specimens I have been 
comparing the present bird. 



Alectrxjrinje ? 
9. OcTHOECA FUMicoLOR, sp. nov, (Plate CXVII.) 

O. svpra fumoso-hrunneay dorso imo rvfescentiore : alis caudaque 
nigris : tectricibiis alarum rufo bivittatis, et secondariis ultimis 
extus rufescente marginatis : superciliis latis et f route ad nucham 
ochracescenti-albis : subtus brunnescenti'mt/rina, ventre medio 



albescentiorey gula quasi dorso concolore, sed palUdiore : rostro et 
pedibus nigris. 

Long, tota 6 0, alee 3*5, caudae 3 0. 

This bird appears to be naturally placed in Dr. Cabanis' genus 
Octhoecay of which the type is Octhoeca oenanthoides {Fluvicola 
cenanthoides, d'Orb.A^oy. pi. 38, fig. 2). 

Other species belonging to this same group are Octhoeca leucophnjs 
(Fluv. leucophrySy d'Orb. Voy. pi. 38, fig. 1), which the present 
bird most resembles in colouring ; Octhoeca ruJipectoraJis {ibidem^ 
pi. 37 y fig. 2) ; Octhoeca Lessoni, mihi (Tyrannulus nifpectus. Less. 
Descr. des Mamm. et Ois, p. 296) ; Octhoeca alhidiema {Setophaga 
albidiema^ Lafr. R. Z. 1848, p. 8), and, perhaps, Setophaga cm- 
namomeiventris^ Lafr. R. Z. 1845, p. 80. The three species figured 
by d'Orbigny are from BoUvia; the three latter, like the present, from 
Bogota. They all offer considerable similarity in colours, and pre- 
sent, so far as I am acquainted with them, the same structure. M. 
de Lafresnaye has indicated the existence and affinities of this group 
in his article in the ' Revue Zoologique,' 1848, p. 8. All d'Orbigny' s 
species inhabit his third zone of elevation, that is, above 11,000 feet 
above the sea-level, and it is probable, therefore, that the New 
Grenadian Octhoecce are Ukewise from the higher regions of the 

Andes. 

10. ExjscARTHMtJS AGiLis, sp. uov. (Plate CXVIIL) 

E. supra nigro et pallido brunneo mixtus, pennis plerumque nigris 
brunneo marginatis: crista capitis totius medialiter nigra^ late- 
raliter autem et subtus pallide brunuea : alis nigris, iectricibus 
rufescente terminatis, secondariis estus pallescentibus : 
unicolore nigra rectricum mediarum apicibus et omnium margi- 
nibus exterioribus pallescentibus : subtus pallide fulvo-flavidus ; 
capitis lateribus et gtitture toto albis nigro variegatis ; pec- 
tore longitudinal iter nigro flammulato : rostro fiigro, mandibul(B 
inferioris basi alba : pedibus nigerrimis : tectricibus subalaribus 
pallide fulvis , 

Long, tota 4*6, alse 2 '2, caudae 2*4. 

This bird much resembles Euscarthmus parulus and E, albicristattis 
in general appearance, and may, I think, be safely placed in the 




29 



same genus, though the bill is slightly broader, and the tail is propor 
tionately rather longer, and has the rectrices more graduated. 

The only example I have seen of it was transmitted to me by 
MM. Verreaux. 

In the markings of the lower part of the body it is not unlike. 
E. paruluSy but the ground-colour is more yellowish, and the striae 
less distinct on the throat and more marked on the breast. Above 
these two species are easily distinguishable. The present has the 
back brown, mixed with black blotches, and not uniform cinereous- 
olive, and the crest is shorter and differently formed, the whole of 
the head-feathers being moderately lengthened, not a few of the 
centre feathers only, as in the older species. 

PlPRIN^. 
11. PiPRA CORACINA, Sp. nOV. 

Pipra leucocillay Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 152. 
Pipra coracina^ J. et E. Verreaux, MS. 

S coracino-nigra: pileo nuchaque albis: rostro mgrescenti-plumbeo : 
pedibus nigris. S junr. viridescenti-cinereus, pane unicolor, alls 
caudaque intus nigris. 

Long, tota 3*5, alae 2*8, caudse 1'2. 




Verreaux have transmitted to me an adult and young male, 
and their MS. description of this species of Manakin, which they 
consider distinct from the well-known Pipra leucocilla^ and I am 
inclined to think they are right. The black colour is generally more 
intense in the present bird, the white extends further back down the 
head, the wings are longer, and the bill rather shorter. They remark 
that the Peruvian bird (which I have not yet seen) appears to be 
the same as this species.. 

FORMICARIIN^. 

12. CoNOPOPHAGA cticuLLATA, sp. nov, (Plate CXIX.) 

C. supra hrnnnescenti'olivacea, alls caudaque nigricantibus brun- 
nescente marginatis : capite toto et cervice postica cum gula et 
tectricum alarum marginibus dare rufo-castaneis : plaga pectorali 
alba : abdomine dilute cinereo, ventre medio et hypochondriis roseo 
aut rufescente tinctis : tectricibus subalaribus flavicanti-brunncis : 
rostro Jlavo : pedibus pallidis. 
Long, tota 4*0, alae 2*7, caudae 1*1. 

The single specimen sent to me by MM. Verreaux is the only 
example I have yet seen of this Conopophaga. It is not hkely to 
be confounded with any other species of the genus that I am 

with, its bright chestnut head and throat and white 
pectoral patch rendering it eminently distinguishable. 

ICTERIN^. 




13. Sturnella ludoviciana (Linn.). 
A single bird transmitted by MM. Verreaux 



to 




to 




this species. The yellow belly is rather brighter than in U.S. examples, 
but at present I can discover no essential difference. It is singular, 
if this 25 the North- American species, that the Mexican bird (Stur- 
nella hippocrepis, Wagh) is usually considered distinct. 

Emberizin^. 

14. Emberizoides macrurits (Gm.). Fringilla macrouray 
Gm. S. N. i. 918. Tardivola macroura. Cab. M. H. p. 135 (note). 

A Bogota specimen of this bird which I have lately acquired agrees 
with the true E. macritrus from Cayenne, and seems to be quite 
distinct from the Brazilian E. inarginalis (Temminck), with which it 
is generally made synonymous. 

TANAGRINiE. 

15. Chlorospingus xanthophrys, sp. nov. 

C, brunnescenti'Olivaceus : loris nigricantihus : super ciliis curtis a 
fronte ad oculum summum et corpore mediali snbtus Jlavis : rostro 
nigro : pedibus pallide brunneis. 
Long, tota 4*7, alse 2*5, caudse 2*4. 

Obs. Similis C. mperciliariy sed minor, et superciliis brevioribus 
et flavis, capite non cinerascente, lateribusque olivascentibus digno- 

scendus. 

I possess a single example of this bird, and have seen others. 

16. Chlorospingus Lichtenstetni, sp. nov. Nemosia r^er- 
ticalis, Licht. in Mus. Berol. (partim). 

C. supra cinereus, alts caudaque nigricantibus ; pileo afro : vitta 
mediali verticis ochracescentt-albida : snbtus albidus : lateribus 
cinerascentibiis, 

Obs. Similis C. verticali, sed major, gula ventre concolore, nee 

There is a single example of this bird in the Berlin Museum, 
received from M. Boissoneau of Paris along with specimens of 
C verticalisy and not distinguished from that species. 

COLTJMBJE. 

17. Chlorcenas BicoLOR (VieilL). Co/. fizcoZor, Vieill. N. D. 
d'H. N. xxvi. 345. C. vinacea, Temm. Pig. t. 41. Mas, Brit. 

18. Zenaida ruficatjda, G. R. Gray, MS. ^ Bp. Coup d'oeil 
sur Tordre des Pigeons, p. 42. Mus. Brit, et Paris. 

19. Zenaida pentheria, Bp. Coup d'oeil, p. 42; et Consp. ii. 
p. 84. Mus. Brit. 

20. Cham^pelia am az ilia, Bp. Coup d'oeil, p. 38, et Consp. n. 
p. 84. Mus. Brit. 

Galling. 

21. CiiAMiEPETES GouDOTi (Lcss.). OrtuUda Gondoti, Less. 




31 



Man. d'Orn. ii. 217; et Tr. d'Orn. i. p. 48 1 . Chamcepetes Goudoti, 
Waaler, Isis, 1832, p. 1227. 



GralTj^e. 

22. GrALLINAGO NOBILIS, Sp. nOV. 

G* supra nigro-cinereo et hrunneo (sicut in plerisque hujus generis 
speciebus) variegata: pileo summo nigro, vitta mediali irregulariter 
cinnamomeO'brunnea : capitis lateribus et cervice postica pallide 
cinnamomeo-brunneis, minute nigro punctatis ; his punctis intra 
rictum et oculum lineam formantibus : scapularibus nigris cinna- 
momeo vittatis, plaga subtermhiali nigra prceditis et eoctus iterum 
late ochracescenti-albo marginatis : remigibus omnibus pure et 
pallide nigricanti-cinereis^ secondariorum et alulcE spurim apicibus 
extus paUescentibus ; tectricibus albido et cinereo variegatis : 
subtus, gutture albicante, pectore toto cinnamomescenti-brunneo, 
nigricante flammulato ; ventre toto albo, hypochondriis et tectri- 
cibus subalaribus albo nigroque regulariter transvittatis ; tectri- 
cibus subcaudalibus albis cinnamomeo tinctis et nigro obsolete 
transfasciatis : caudae rectricibus sedecem; harum octo mediis nigris 
claro rufo late terminatis, hoc colore rufo iterum sub margine an- 
guste nigro vittato ; una utrinque proxima prmcedentibus assimili, 
sed colore nigro ochracescente maculato et terminatione rufa non 
(Sque lata ; tribus autem utrinque extimis ochracescehtibus nigro 
irregulariter transvittatis : rostro longissimo^ brunnescente, apice 
nigra, bast pallidiore : pedibus nigro-fuscis* 
Long, tota 11*0, alae 5*7, caudse 2*2, rostri arictu 3*7, tarsi 1'5. 
There is au example of this fine large species of Snipe in the 
British Museum, from Mr. S. Stevens's Bogota collection, and 
MM.Verreaux have also lately transmitted a single specimen to me. 
It is of about the same size as Temminck's Scolopax gigantea, but 
that species appears to have the wings banded. In the present bird 
the quills are uniform slaty black. The spurious wings and second- 
aries are edged with buflfy white, and all the wing-coverts are termi- 
nated with the same colour, forming irregular barrings. 

23. Rallus semiplumbeus, sp. nov. ? 

R» supra brunnescenti-olivaceus, nigro fiammulatus ; alis caudaque 
nigricanti-brunneis ; alarum tectricibus rufis : loris nigris : capi" 
tis lateribus et corpore toto subtus plumbeis ; mento et gulari stria 
albis : tectricibus subcaudalibus albis nigro mixtis : rostri cuU 
mine et apice nigris ; mandibula autem inferiore ruberrima : pedi- 
bus pallide brunneis. 
Long, tota 8*5, al8e4*4, caudse 1*8, rostri 1*7. 
Tliis is a true Rallus — near J?, virginianus of the U.S. — of which 
MM. Verreaux have sent me a single specimen. I have tried in vain 
to make it agree with any recognized species, and therefore provided 
it with a (temporary ?) name. 



32 




2^Descripttons of Twenty-five New Species of Land- 
Shells, FROM THE Collection of H. Cuming, 

By Dr. L, Pfeiffer. 

1, Helix exserta, Pfr. H. testa via! perforata, conoideo-lenti' 
culari, tenuis oblique rugosula, pallide cornea; spira conoidea, 
acutiuscula ; anfr* 4^ regulariter accrescentibns, superiie tumidu- 
lis, ad suturam, carina rotundata, eaiserta marginatis, ultimo non 
descendentCj hasi convexo ; apertura obliqua, depresse angulatO' 
lunari; perist, simplice, recto, marginibus remotis^ columellari 
brevi, subverticali. 

Diam. maj. 6, min. 5, alt. 3 mill. 

Hah. Sandwich Islands {Dr. Newcomb). 

2. Helix coagulata, Pfr. H. testa anguste perforata, conoideO' 
depressa, tenuiuscula, arcuatim striatula et ad peripheriam oblique 
malleato-rugosa, alabastrina, fascia 1 pellucida prope suturam 
ornata ; spira brevi, conoideo-convexa ; anfr. 5 vix convexiusculis, 
ultimo obsolete angulato, basi convexo, nitido; apertura obliqua, 
rotundato-lunari, vix latiore quam alta ; perist. simplice, recto, 
margine dextro daclivi, columellari superne vix reflexo. 

Diam. maj. 30, min. 25^, alt. 18 mill. 
Hab. Araboina. 



3. Helix Hainesi, Pfr. H. testa aperte perforata, depressa. 



tenui, su 




aiOf 




na, parum nitentCy pallide cornea ; spira 
brevissime conoidea, obtusa; sutura levi, submarginata ; anfr. 7 
vix convexiusculis, sensim accrescentibus, ultimo peripheria sub- 
angulato, basi convexiore, nitido ; apertura vix obliqua, depresse 
lunari; perist. simplice, recto, marginibus vix convergentihvs, 
columellari declivi, vix incrassato. 

Diam. maj. 29. min. 25, alt. 12 mill. 

Hab. Siam. 

4. Helix Siamensis, Pfr. H. testa perforata, depressiuscula, 
solida, superne arcuato-striata^ striis spiralibus granulatO'decus- 
sata, pallide cornea ; spira brevissime conoidea ; anfr. 6 lente ac- 
crescentibus, vix convexiusculis, ultimo latiore, infra peripheriam 
leviter radiato-striato, nitido, albido ; apertura obliqua, lunari; 
perist. simplice, recto, marginibus vix convergentibus, columellari 
superne brevissime reflexo. 

Diam. maj. 25, min. 22, alt. 12|^inilL 
Hah. Siam. 

5. Helix omissa, Pfr. 



H. testa umbilicata, depresso-turbinata, 
tenui, ruguloso-striata, diaphana, cerea; spira breviter turbi- 
nata, apice acutiuscula ; anf 4 convexis, ultimo non descendentCy 
supra peripheriam subangulato, basi convexo ; umbilico ^ diametri 
fere aequante ; apertura diagonali, lunato-rotundata ; perist. sim- 
plice, recto, marginibus approximatis, columellari subpatulo. 

Diam. maj. 4, min. 3y, alt. 2 mill. 

Hab. Juan Fernandez (H. Cu7ning),